List of Publications
Tol, R.W.H.M. van, H.J. Swarts, A. van der Linden and J.H. Visser. 2007. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils. Pest Management Science 63: 483-490.
Tol, R.W.H.M. van, J.H. Visser and M.W. Sabelis. 2004. Behavioural responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to semochemicals from conspecifics, Otiorhynchus salicicola, and host plants. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 110: 145-150.
Visser, J.H.. 2004. Calculating track parameters from data obtained with Syntech servo-spheres using TRACKanalysis.xls. In manuals of Syntech TrackSphere locomotion compensator models LC-100 and LC-300, www.syntech.nl, 3 pp.
Drijfhout, F.P., A.T. Groot, T.A. van Beek and J.H. Visser. 2003. Mate location in the green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 106: 73-77.
Groot, A.T., A. Heijboer, J.H. Visser and M. Dicke. 2003. Oviposition preference of Lygocoris pabulinus (Het., Miridae) in relation to plants and conspecifics. J. Appl. Entomol. 127: 65-71.
Gerritsen, L.J.M., J.H. Visser and M.A. Jongsma. 2002. Transgenic Spodoptera exigua: possibilities for their use. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 13: 127-129.
Groot, A.T., F.P. Drijfhout, A. Heijboer, T.A. van Beek and J.H. Visser. 2001. Disruption of sexual communication in the mirid bug Lygocoris pabulinus by hexyl butanoate. Agricult. & Forest Entomol. 3: 49-55.
Visser, J.H., E. Beerling, C.G. Conijn, A. Ester, M.A. Jongsma, W.J. de Kogel, P.M. Ramakers, R.W.H.M. van Tol & J.J. de Vlieger. 2001. Innovaties in de beheersing van plagen. Gewasbescherming 32 (2): 25-30.
Drijfhout, F.P., T.A. van Beek, J.H. Visser and Ae. de Groot. 2000. On-line thermal desorption-gas chromatography of intact insects for pheromone analyses. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 1383-1392.
Griepink, F.C., F.P. Drijfhout, T.A. van Beek, J.H. Visser and Ae. de Groot. 2000. Analysis of the sex pheromone gland content of individual Symmetrischema tangolias by means of direct gland introduction into a two-dimensional gas chromatograph. J. Chem. Ecol. 26: 1013-1023.
Tol, R.W.H.M. van, J.H. Visser and M.W. Sabelis. 2000. Responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to weevil and host-plant odours. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 11: 109-114.
Groot, A.T., R. Timmer, G. Gort, G.P. Lelyveld, F.P. Drijfhout, T.A. van Beek and J.H. Visser. 1999. Sex-related perception of insect and plant volatiles in Lygocoris pabulinus (L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 25: 2357-2371.
Meijerink, J., A.C.M. Clerkx and J.H. Visser. 1999. Sensillar structures on the antenna of the female mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. In J. Meijerink, Olfaction in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae – electrophysiology and identification of kairomones, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 2, pp. 24-33.
Kogel, W.J. de, E.H. Koschier and J.H. Visser. 1999. Y-tube olfactometer to determine the attractiveness of plant volatiles to western flower thrips. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 10: 131-135.
Groot, A.T., E. van der Wal, A. Schuurman, J.H. Visser, L.H.M. Blommers and T.A. van Beek. 1998. Copulation behaviour of Lygocoris pabulinus under laboratory conditions. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 88: 219-228.
Groot, A.T., J.H. Visser, R. Geerts, F.P. Drijfhout and T.A. van Beek. 1998. Behavioural response of Lygocoris pabulinus (Heteroptera: Miridae) to potential sex pheromone compounds. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 9: 191-195.
Tol, R.W.H.M. van and J.H. Visser. 1998. Host-plant preference and antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 9: 35-40.
Bolter, C.J., M. Dicke, J.J.A. van Loon, J.H. Visser and M.A. Posthumus. 1997. Attraction of Colorado potato beetle to herbivore-damaged plants during herbivory and after its termination. J. Chem. Ecol. 23: 1003-1023.
Visser, J.H. and F.C. Griepink. 1996. Wind tunnel bioassays of the Symmetrischema tangolias sex pheromone. In F.C. Griepink, Analysis of the Sex Pheromones of Symmetrischema tangolias and Scrobipalpuloides absoluta, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 6, pp. 93-101.
Griepink, F.C., T.A. van Beek, J.H. Visser, M.A. Posthumus and Ae. de Groot. 1996. Isolation, identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of Scrobipalpuloides absoluta. In F.C. Griepink, Analysis of the Sex Pheromones of Symmetrischema tangolias and Scrobipalpuloides absoluta, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 5, pp. 73-92.
Griepink, F.C., F. Drijfhout, T.A. van Beek, J.H. Visser and Ae. de Groot. 1996. Determination of the sex pheromone gland content of Symmetrischema tangolias by means of direct gland introduction into a two-dimensional gas chromatograph. In F.C. Griepink, Analysis of the Sex Pheromones of Symmetrischema tangolias and Scrobipalpuloides absoluta, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 4, pp. 61-71.
Groot, A.T., A. Schuurman, G.J.R. Judd, L.H.M. Blommers and J.H. Visser. 1996. Sexual behaviour of the green capsid bug Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Miridae): an introduction. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 7: 249-251.
Griepink, F.C., T.A. van Beek, M.A. Posthumus, Ae. de Groot, J.H. Visser and S. Voerman. 1996. Identification of the sex pheromone of Scrobipalpula absoluta; Determination of double bond positions in triple unsaturated straight chain molecules by means of dimethyl disulphide derivatization. Tetrahedron Letters 37: 411-414.
Griepink, F.C., T.A. van Beek, J.H. Visser, S. Voerman and Ae. de Groot. 1995. Isolation and identification of sex pheromone of Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 21: 2003-2013.
Thiery, D. and J.H. Visser. 1995. Les messages du vent. Pour la Science no. 211: 27.
Visser, J.H. and Yan Fu-shun. 1995. Electroantennogram responses of the grain aphids Sitobion avenae (F.) and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walk.)(Hom., Aphididae) to plant odour components. J. Appl. Ent. 119: 539-542.
Visser, J.H. and P.G.M. Piron. 1994. Perception of plant odour components by the vetch aphid Megoura viciae: Shape characteristics of electroantennogram responses. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 5: 85-90.
Beek, T.A. van, A. Blaakmeer, F.C. Griepink, J.J.A. van Loon, J.H. Visser and A.E. de Groot. 1994. Chemical ecology as a lead for the development of environmentally safe insect-control agents. In G.G. Briggs (ed.), Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Advances in the Chemistry of Insect Control, July 18-21 1993, Cambridge UK, Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 52-69.
Minks, A.K., S. Voerman, J.H. Visser and F.C. Griepink. 1994. Ontwikkelingen in het feromoon-onderzoek van het IPO-DLO. Gewasbescherming 25: 3-12.
Dickens, J.C., G.D. Prestwich, C.-S. Ng and J.H. Visser. 1993. Selectively fluorinated analogs reveal differential olfactory reception and inactivation of green leaf volatiles in insects. J. Chem. Ecol. 19: 1981-1991.
Ouden, H. den, J.H. Visser, D.P.W. Alkema, J.J. de Vlieger and P.S.M. Derks. 1993. Experiments with volatile substances in slow release formulations causing repellency for oviposition by the cabbage root fly, Phorbia brassicae Bché. (Dipt., Anthomyiidae). J. Appl. Ent 115: 307-312.
Dickens, J.C., J.H. Visser and J.N.C. van der Pers. 1993. Detection and deactivation of pheromone and plant odor components by the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Insect Physiol. 39: 503-516.
Menken, S.B.J., J.H. Visser and P. Harrewijn (eds). 1992. Proceeedings of the 8th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 424 pp.
Vet, L.E.M., R. de Jong, W.A. van Giessen and J.H. Visser. 1990. A learning-related variation in electroantennogram responses of a parasitic wasp. Physiol. Entomol. 15: 243-247.
Visser, J.H., H. den Ouden and S. Voerman. 1990. The perception of attractants and repellents by insects. Proc. Exper. & Appl. Entomol., N.E.V. Amsterdam 1: 37-41.
Roessingh, P., H. Visser, H. Ament and H. Wezel. 1989. Computer-assisted analysis of electrophysiological data from insect sensilla. In P. Roessingh, Trail Marking and Following by Larvae of the Small Ermine Moth Yponomeuta Cagnagellus, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 7, pp. 105-117.
Piek, T., B. Hue, A. Lind, P. Mantel, J. van Marle and J.H. Visser. 1989. The venom of Ampulex compressa - Effects on behaviour and synaptic transmission of cockroaches. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 92C: 175-183.
Jong, R. de, J.H. Visser, E.A. van Strien and C.M. Nijhof. 1988. Effects of feeding experience on host odour perception in the Colorado potato beetle. In R. de Jong, Host Odour Recognition by the Colorado Potato Beetle, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 5, pp. 51-60.
Jong, R. de and J.H. Visser. 1988. Suppression-related mixture perception in olfactory receptors. In R. de Jong, Host Odour Recognition by the Colorado Potato Beetle, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 4, pp. 37-50.
Jong, R. de, J.H. Visser, W.H. Frentz and H.M. Smid. 1988. Host odour perception in the Colorado potato beetle. In R. de Jong, Host Odour Recognition by the Colorado Potato Beetle, PhD Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, Chapter 1, pp. 1-7.
Jong, R. de and J.H. Visser. 1987. Responses of central neurones in the Colorado potato beetle to green odour components. In V. Labeyrie, G. Fabres and D. Lachaise (eds), Insects-Plants, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships, Pau, 1986. Junk, Dordrecht, p. 397.
Visser, J.H. and R. de Jong. 1987. Plant odour perception in the Colorado potato beetle: chemoattraction towards host plants. In V. Labeyrie, G. Fabres and D. Lachaise (eds), Insects-Plants, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships, Pau, 1986. Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 129-133.
Schoonhoven, L.M. en J.H. Visser. 1986. Insekten op onze planten. Hoe herkennen zij hun voedsel? NVON maandblad 11(1): 21-22.
Visser, J.H. and D. Thiery. 1985. Behavioral responses of the Colorado potato beetle to stimulation by wind and plant odors. In D.N. Ferro and R.H. Voss (eds), Proc. Symp. Colorado Potato Beetle, XVIIth Int. Congr. Entomol. Hamburg. Bull. Mass. agric. Exp. Stn. 704: 117-125.
Piek, T., J.H. Visser and R.L. Veenendaal. 1984. Change in behaviour of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, after being stung by the sphecid wasp Ampulex compressa. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35: 195-203.
Visser, J.H. and O.M.B. de Ponti. 1983. Resistance of carrot to the carrot fly, Psila rosae. In R. Cavalloro and A. Piavaux (eds), Progress Report 1979/1981. C.E.C. Programme on Integrated and Biological Control. C.E.C., Luxembourg, pp. 214-224.
Visser, J.H. and A.K. Minks (eds). 1982. Proceedings of the 5th international Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships. Pudoc, Wageningen, 464 pp.
Yan Fu-Shun and J.H. Visser. 1982. Electroantennogram responses of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae to plant volatile components. In J.H. Visser and A.K. Minks (eds), Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 387-388.
Visser, J.H.. 1982. Olfaction at the onset of host plant selection. In J.H. Visser and A.K. Minks (eds), Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Insect-Plant Relationships. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 367-368.
Kozlowski, M.W. and J.H. Visser. 1981. Host plant related properties of the antennal olfactory system in the oak flea weevil, Rhynchaenus quercus. Electroantennogram study. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 30: 169-175.
Visser, J.H. and J. de Wilde. 1980. Host-plant selection in the Colorado potato beetle. In A.K. Minks and P. Gruys (eds), Integrated Control of Insect Pests in the Netherlands. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 143-146.
Visser, J.H.. 1979. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection. Ph.D. Thesis Wageningen Agricultural University, 88 pp.
Visser, J.H., S. van Straten and H. Maarse. 1979. Isolation and identification of volatiles in the foliage of potato, Solanum tuberosum, a host plant of the Colorado beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. J. Chem. Ecol. 5: 13-25.
Visser, J.H.. 1976. Olfactorische orientatie: met de kop in de wind. Jaarboek 1974-1976 N.E.V. Amsterdam, pp. 68-70.
Insect Olfaction of Plant Odour: Colorado Potato Beetle and Aphid Studies
by J.H. Visser
Colorado potato beetle in action on the servosphere, locomotion compensator
1988-2005: Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
1973-1987: Department of Entomology, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands
Abstract. Most phytophagous insects are specialized to feed and oviposit on a restricted range of closely related plant species. As these insects feed on agricultural crops they get attention of scientists who like to interfere with their damaging activities. The Colorado potato beetle is such an example. Adults and larvae feed on the foliage of potato plants and, sometimes, they can be found on tomato plants as well. At the time I started as scientist at the Wageningen Agricultural University, in 1973, hardly anything was known about host-plant finding by the Colorado potato beetle and other insects. So it started, for the study of beetle behaviour a wind tunnel was built. At the outlet of this wind tunnel a walking plate was positioned. Individual beetles were observed for their responses to wind carrying odour of the potato plants standing in the upwind compartment of the tunnel. Starved beetles respond to potato plant odour by moving upwind (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis). The next step was to define chemically the odour of potato plants. Chemical analyses revealed that a large part of the odour of potato plant leaves consists of a mixture of short chain alcohols and aldehydes, like (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-2-hexenal. These compounds I called “general green leaf volatiles” as they occur in different mixture compositions in all green leaves. They are formed by the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by the plant enzyme lipoxygenase. The beetles’ sense of smell is located in numerous olfactory sensilla on the antennae. The method to investigate the beetles’ sense of smell is to record the electrical activities of the olfactory sensilla (called electrophysiology). This is done by cutting off an antenna and its very tip, and to make electrical contact at both sides of the excised antenna. When over the antenna odour is blown and this odour is detected by the olfactory sensilla, an electrical signal is recorded (electroantennogram, EAG). Chemicals that are not or badly detected by the beetles’ sense of smell elicit a zero or small electroantennogram. These studies showed that the Colorado potato beetle smells the general green leaf volatiles very well even at low concentrations. Behavioural tests in the wind tunnel revealed that the mixture composition of general green leaf volatiles is an essential characteristic of potato plant foliage attractive to the beetle. Changing the mixture composition, by adding artificially one component at a higher concentration, makes the potato leaf odour unattractive to the beetle. The attractive odour is masked. The same masking of attractive odour occurs by mixing with the odours of nonhost plants like cabbage. In further years the behavioural setup was improved by the introduction of the locomotion compensator, servosphere, which allowed the continuous and detailed recordings of insect walking behaviour. Moreover, the electrophysiological methods were expanded to recordings of individual sensilla as well as brain neurones in response to general green leaf volatiles and mixtures. Suppression of neurone responses is a characteristic feature of mixture perception. Learning, the experience with particular odours, affects both the sensitivities of peripheral antennal receptors as well as the behaviour of the Colorado potato beetle. Walking behaviour of the beetle was studied in detail and let to cybernetic interpretations of insect orientation as steered by different stimulus modalities and internal state of the insect (see page 9). The second part of my scientific career I spent at Plant Research International in Wageningen. Here I studied plant odour olfaction in aphids. Aphids are in Dutch agriculture important vectors of plant virus diseases. The emphasis was on plant odour repellency rather than the attraction of aphids, since repellents can prevent landing and virus transmission. The aphids’ sense of smell was studied with digitized recordings and special software for data analyses, which allowed detailed analyses of electroantennogram waveforms. Odour response profiles were established for a number of aphid species like Megoura viciae, Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae. The variations of response profiles between clones, different aphid forms and the effect of diet were also studied (see page 10). Although aphids have a limited set of olfactory sensilla, they can perceive plant odours well even at low concentrations. They all perceive general green leaf volatiles like (E)-2-hexenal. Other volatile compounds like carvone, hexanonitrile and heptanonitrile are often very effective. Individual odour compounds were further tested for their repellency to aphids in behavioural bioassays (see page 8). In all these years I have been involved in other research projects as well, see my list of publications.
Antennal olfactory sensilla (left), electroantennograms and antennal preparation (right) of an aphid. Antennal recordings were digitized and the array of data was analyzed by ASYST software developed in 1990.
At the left: wind tunnel built in 1974. The test section is shown at the left. On the walking plate, indicated as wp, Colorado potato beetles were observed for their behaviours in response to odours coming from plants positioned in the upwind secton of the wind tunnel.
At the right: general green leaf volatiles like (E)-2-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol are formed by the breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids. These compounds are essential constituants of leaf odours being attractive to Colorado potato beetles. Studies published in 1978-1979.
At the left: wind tunnel built in 1992. Ventilator located at F, charcoal filters at B and H, fresh air inlet at E, and insect flight compartment at the top with three glass windows on each side indicated with P.
At the right: servosphere, locomotion compensator, built in 1981. An insect on top of the sphere is seen by the detector D. Insect walking is compensated by motors M1 & M2. Rolling of the sphere is recorded by pulse generators PGx & PGy.
My website “insect olfaction of plant odour” contains the relevant publications as pdf files and unpublished data on Colorado potato beetle and aphids. The information on 10 html pages is somewhat fragmented as I aim to reach a mixed audience. For the same reason, details and the discussion of results are restricted. All research presented is the outcome of concerted actions of those mentioned as authors or acknowledged in the text. I hope you enjoy it!